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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1111; doi:10.3390/ijms17071111

Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo

1
Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
2
International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
3
Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 2 July 2016 / Accepted: 2 July 2016 / Published: 12 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Abstract

Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC). The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds’ safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood’s physiological conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanodiamond; red blood cell; albumin; immune responses nanodiamond; red blood cell; albumin; immune responses
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Tsai, L.-W.; Lin, Y.-C.; Perevedentseva, E.; Lugovtsov, A.; Priezzhev, A.; Cheng, C.-L. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1111.

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