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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1091; doi:10.3390/ijms17071091

Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

1
Department of Stress and Developmental Biology, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
2
Department of Molecular Signal Processing, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ute Roessner and Jianhua Zhu
Received: 14 May 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Plant Sciences)
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Abstract

Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana’s roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes View Full-Text
Keywords: plant; fungus; interaction; exudates; roots; leaves; metabolite profiling; liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS); gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) plant; fungus; interaction; exudates; roots; leaves; metabolite profiling; liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS); gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Strehmel, N.; Mönchgesang, S.; Herklotz, S.; Krüger, S.; Ziegler, J.; Scheel, D. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1091.

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