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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1075; doi:10.3390/ijms17071075

MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study)

1
Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Central Clinical Hospital, Czechosłowacka 8/10, 92-216 Łódź, Poland
2
Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Central Clinical Hospital, Czechosłowacka 8/10, 92-216 Łódź, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masatoshi Maki
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 9 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalloproteins)
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Abstract

Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9); sarcosine; NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor; glutamatergic system; schizophrenia; negative symptoms matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9); sarcosine; NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor; glutamatergic system; schizophrenia; negative symptoms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Strzelecki, D.; Kałużyńska, O.; Szyburska, J.; Wysokiński, A. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1075.

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