Next Article in Journal
The X-ray Structures of Six Octameric RNA Duplexes in the Presence of Different Di- and Trivalent Cations
Next Article in Special Issue
Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery
Previous Article in Journal
Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae
Previous Article in Special Issue
Intravenous Administration Is an Effective and Safe Route for Cancer Gene Therapy Using the Bifidobacterium-Mediated Recombinant HSV-1 Thymidine Kinase and Ganciclovir
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1013; doi:10.3390/ijms17071013

Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage

1
Department of Orthopaedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
2
Department of Sports and Para-Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
3
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ge Zhang
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 25 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Molecular Medicine & Molecular Drug Discovery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2757 KB, uploaded 25 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA), but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α). These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α; hyaluronic acid; CD44; articular cartilage; extracellular matrix hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α; hyaluronic acid; CD44; articular cartilage; extracellular matrix
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ichimaru, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Arai, Y.; Kishida, T.; Shin-Ya, M.; Honjo, K.; Tsuchida, S.; Inoue, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Shimomura, S.; Mazda, O.; Kubo, T. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1013.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top