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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 868; doi:10.3390/ijms17060868

Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Photoaging and Photocarcinogenesis

1
Division of Dermatology, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12000, Thailand
2
Department of Dermatology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masatoshi Maki
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalloproteins)
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Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-containing endopeptidases with an extensive range of substrate specificities. Collectively, these enzymes are able to degrade various components of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Based on their structure and substrate specificity, they can be categorized into five main subgroups, namely (1) collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13); (2) gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9); (3) stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-10 and MMP-11); (4) matrilysins (MMP-7 and MMP-26); and (5) membrane-type (MT) MMPs (MMP-14, MMP-15, and MMP-16). The alterations made to the ECM by MMPs might contribute in skin wrinkling, a characteristic of premature skin aging. In photocarcinogenesis, degradation of ECM is the initial step towards tumor cell invasion, to invade both the basement membrane and the surrounding stroma that mainly comprises fibrillar collagens. Additionally, MMPs are involved in angiogenesis, which promotes cancer cell growth and migration. In this review, we focus on the present knowledge about premature skin aging and skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma, with our main focus on members of the MMP family and their functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); photoaging; photocarcinogenesis; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; malignant melanoma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); photoaging; photocarcinogenesis; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; malignant melanoma
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Pittayapruek, P.; Meephansan, J.; Prapapan, O.; Komine, M.; Ohtsuki, M. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Photoaging and Photocarcinogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 868.

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