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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 869; doi:10.3390/ijms17060869

Mechanism of Action and Applications of Interleukin 24 in Immunotherapy

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Herbert H. Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468, USA
2
Department of Biology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, Room 4315, New York, NY 10016, USA
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue (at 68th street) HN927, New York, NY 10065, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Lemarié
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [616 KB, uploaded 13 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Interleukin 24 (IL-24) is an important pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine, whose gene is located in human chromosome 1q32-33. IL-24’s signaling pathways have diverse biological functions related to cell differentiation, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and inflammation, placing it at the center of an active area of research. IL-24 is well known for its apoptotic effect in cancer cells while having no such effect on normal cells. IL-24 can also be secreted by both immune and non-immune cells. Downstream effects of IL-24, after binding to the IL-20 receptor, can occur dependently or independently of the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway, which is classically involved in cytokine-mediated activities. After exogenous addition of IL-24, apoptosis is induced in tumor cells independently of the JAK/STAT pathway. We have shown that IL-24 binds to Sigma 1 Receptor and this event induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium mobilization, reactive oxygen species generation, p38MAPK activity, and ceramide production. Here we review IL-24’s role in autoimmunity, infectious disease response, wound repair, and vascular disease. Detailed understanding of the pleiotropic roles of IL-24 signaling can assist in the selection of more accurate therapeutic approaches, as well as targeting of appropriate cell types in treatment strategy development, and ultimately achieve desired therapeutic effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: IL-24; Sigma 1 Receptor; cancer; inflammatory disease; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress IL-24; Sigma 1 Receptor; cancer; inflammatory disease; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Persaud, L.; De Jesus, D.; Brannigan, O.; Richiez-Paredes, M.; Huaman, J.; Alvarado, G.; Riker, L.; Mendez, G.; Dejoie, J.; Sauane, M. Mechanism of Action and Applications of Interleukin 24 in Immunotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 869.

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