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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 778; doi:10.3390/ijms17060778

Effects of Endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) on Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Pine Wilt Disease

1,2,* , 1,2
Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Prevention and Management of Invasive Species, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
Jiangxi Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Bureau, Nanchang 330038, China
Poyang Lake Eco-economy Research Center, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang 332005, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick C. Y. Woo
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Genomics and Metabolomics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5906 KB, uploaded 25 May 2016]   |  


Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is responsible for devastating epidemics in pine trees in Asia and Europe. Recent studies showed that bacteria carried by the PWN might be involved in PWD. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between bacteria and the PWN remained unclear. Now that the whole genome of B. xylophilus (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) is published, transcriptome analysis is a unique method to study the role played by bacteria in PWN. In this study, the transcriptome of aseptic B. xylophilus, B. xylophilus treated with endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSPmBx03) and fungus B. xylophilus were sequenced. We found that 61 genes were up-regulated and 830 were down-regulated in B. xylophilus after treatment with the endobacterium; 178 genes were up-regulated and 1122 were down-regulated in fungus B. xylophilus compared with aseptic B. xylophilus. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were used to study the significantly changed biological functions and pathways for these differentially expressed genes. Many pathogenesis-related genes, including glutathinone S-transferase, pectate lyase, ATP-binding cassette transporter and cytochrome P450, were up-regulated after B. xylophilus were treated with the endobacterium. In addition, we found that bacteria enhanced the virulence of PWN. These findings indicate that endobacteria might play an important role in the development and virulence of PWN and will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between bacteria and the PWN. View Full-Text
Keywords: transcriptome; differentially expressed genes; bacteria; pine; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus transcriptome; differentially expressed genes; bacteria; pine; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

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He, L.-X.; Wu, X.-Q.; Xue, Q.; Qiu, X.-W. Effects of Endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) on Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Pine Wilt Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 778.

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