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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 758; doi:10.3390/ijms17050758

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats

1
Department of Smart Food and Drug, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
2
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea
3
Chemistry and Environmental Science, City University of New York—Medgar Evers College, New York, NY 11225, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macro- and Micro-nutrient Antioxidants)
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Abstract

In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: procyanidins; alcohol; oxidative stress; hepatoprotection; CYP2E1; MAPKs procyanidins; alcohol; oxidative stress; hepatoprotection; CYP2E1; MAPKs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bak, M.J.; Truong, V.-L.; Ko, S.-Y.; Nguyen, X.N.G.; Ingkasupart, P.; Jun, M.; Shin, J.Y.; Jeong, W.-S. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 758.

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