Next Article in Journal
Guanabenz Downregulates Inflammatory Responses via eIF2α Dependent and Independent Signaling
Next Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Interaction between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and B-Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Resveratrol Inhibition of Cellular Respiration: New Paradigm for an Old Mechanism
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 658; doi:10.3390/ijms17050658

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

1
Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L. 64849, Mexico
2
Tecnologia Ambiental Biomex S.A. de C.V., Volcan Jorullo 5268, Zapopan, Jalisco 45070, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macro- and Micro-nutrient Antioxidants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [432 KB, uploaded 5 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis. View Full-Text
Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction; microwave assisted extraction; Arthrospira platensis; cyanobacteria; functional lipophilic compounds; β-carotene; α-tocopherol; γ-linolenic acid supercritical fluid extraction; microwave assisted extraction; Arthrospira platensis; cyanobacteria; functional lipophilic compounds; β-carotene; α-tocopherol; γ-linolenic acid
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Esquivel-Hernández, D.A.; López, V.H.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J.; Alemán-Nava, G.S.; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, S.P.; Rostro-Alanis, M.; Parra-Saldívar, R. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 658.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top