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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 713; doi:10.3390/ijms17050713

Antibacterial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-Encapsulated Cockle Shells Calcium Carbonate (Aragonite) Nanoparticles and Its Biocompatability in Macrophage J774A.1

1
Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Food Science and Technology and Laboratory of Natural Product, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
4
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Már Másson
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 16 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery and Antimicrobial Agents)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2511 KB, uploaded 19 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

The use of nanoparticle delivery systems to enhance intracellular penetration of antibiotics and their retention time is becoming popular. The challenge, however, is that the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems at the cellular level must be established prior to biomedical applications. Ciprofloxacin–cockle shells-derived calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles (C-CSCCAN) were developed and characterized. Antibacterial activity was determined using a modified disc diffusion protocol on Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Biocompatibilittes with macrophage were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Transcriptional regulation of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) was determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). C-CSCCAN were spherical in shape, with particle sizes ranging from 11.93 to 22.12 nm. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC) were 99.5% and 5.9%, respectively, with negative ζ potential. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed strong crystallizations and purity in the formulations. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was 18.6 ± 0.5 mm, which was better than ciprofloxacin alone (11.7 ± 0.9 mm). Study of biocompatability established the cytocompatability of the delivery system without upregulation of IL-1β. The results indicated that ciprofloxacin–nanoparticles enhanced the antibacterial efficacy of the antibiotic, and could act as a suitable delivery system against intracellular infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles; ciprofloxacin; intracellular infection; proinflammatory cytokine antimicrobial resistance; calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles; ciprofloxacin; intracellular infection; proinflammatory cytokine
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Isa, T.; Zakaria, Z.A.B.; Rukayadi, Y.; Mohd Hezmee, M.N.; Jaji, A.Z.; Imam, M.U.; Hammadi, N.I.; Mahmood, S.K. Antibacterial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-Encapsulated Cockle Shells Calcium Carbonate (Aragonite) Nanoparticles and Its Biocompatability in Macrophage J774A.1. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 713.

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