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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 769; doi:10.3390/ijms17050769

Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

1
Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, UNESP—Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus Araraquara, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Araraquara, SP 14800-903, Brazil
2
Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, UNESP—Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus Araraquara, Departamento de Farmacos e Medicamentos, Araraquara, SP 14800-903, Brazil
3
Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, Sao Carlos, SP 15980-900, Brazil
4
Applied Molecular Photomedicine Laboratory, the Forsyth Institute, 245 First Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
5
Department of PharmaceuticalSciences, School of Pharmacy, Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, 140 The Fenway, Room 156, 360 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Már Másson
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery and Antimicrobial Agents)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1593 KB, uploaded 20 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (MB-NP) and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT—in planktonic and biofilm phases—with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL) at 20 J/cm2 in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP) or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm2) in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82%) on gingival bleeding index (GBI) compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; PLGA; photodynamic therapy; periodontitis; methylene blue; biofilms nanoparticles; PLGA; photodynamic therapy; periodontitis; methylene blue; biofilms
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Freitas, L.M.; Calixto, G.M.F.; Chorilli, M.; Giusti, J.S.M.; Bagnato, V.S.; Soukos, N.S.; Amiji, M.M.; Fontana, C.R. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 769.

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