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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 617; doi:10.3390/ijms17050617

New Is Old, and Old Is New: Recent Advances in Antibiotic-Based, Antibiotic-Free and Ethnomedical Treatments against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Wound Infections

1
Institute of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
Spinal Surgery Department, Affiliated Hospital of Gansu University of Chinese Medicines, Lanzhou 730020, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [269 KB, uploaded 28 April 2016]

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen of wound infections. Thus far, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become the major causative agent in wound infections, especially for nosocomial infections. MRSA infections are seldom eradicated by routine antimicrobial therapies. More concerning, some strains have become resistant to the newest antibiotics of last resort. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of a polymyxin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae, by which resistance to the last group of antibiotics will likely spread rapidly. The worst-case scenario, “a return to the pre-antibiotic era”, is likely in sight. A perpetual goal for antibiotic research is the discovery of an antibiotic that lacks resistance potential, such as the recent discovery of teixobactin. However, when considering the issue from an ecological and evolutionary standpoint, it is evident that it is insufficient to solve the antibiotic dilemma through the use of antibiotics themselves. In this review, we summarized recent advances in antibiotic-based, antibiotic-free and ethnomedical treatments against MRSA wound infections to identify new clues to solve the antibiotic dilemma. One potential solution is to use ethnomedical drugs topically. Some ethnomedical drugs have been demonstrated to be effective antimicrobials against MRSA. A decline in antibiotic resistance can therefore be expected, as has been demonstrated when antibiotic-free treatments were used to limit the use of antibiotics. It is also anticipated that these drugs will have low resistance potential, although there is only minimal evidence to support this claim to date. More clinical trials and animal tests should be conducted on this topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); wound infection; biofilm; antibiotics; ethnomedicine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); wound infection; biofilm; antibiotics; ethnomedicine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dou, J.-L.; Jiang, Y.-W.; Xie, J.-Q.; Zhang, X.-G. New Is Old, and Old Is New: Recent Advances in Antibiotic-Based, Antibiotic-Free and Ethnomedical Treatments against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Wound Infections. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 617.

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