Hepatoprotective Limonoids from Andiroba (Carapa guianensis)
AbstractThree gedunin-type limonoids, gedunin (1), 6α-acetoxygedunin (2), and 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (3), which were isolated from the seed and flower oils of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aublet, Meliaceae), exhibited hepatoprotective effects at doses of 25 mg/kg, p.o. against d-galactosamine (d-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. To characterize the mechanisms of action of 1–3 and clarify the structural requirements for their hepatoprotective effects, 17 related limonoids (1–17) isolated from the seed and/or flower oils of C. guianensis were examined in in vitro studies assessing their effects on (i) d-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes, (ii) LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and (iii) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The mechanisms of action of 1–3 are likely to involve the inhibition of LPS-induced macrophage activation and reduced sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-α; however, these compounds did not decrease the cytotoxicity caused by d-GalN. In addition, the structural requirements of limonoids (1–17) for inhibition of LPS-induced NO production in mouse peritoneal macrophages and TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells were evaluated. View Full-Text
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Ninomiya, K.; Miyazawa, S.; Ozeki, K.; Matsuo, N.; Muraoka, O.; Kikuchi, T.; Yamada, T.; Tanaka, R.; Morikawa, T. Hepatoprotective Limonoids from Andiroba (Carapa guianensis). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 591.
Ninomiya K, Miyazawa S, Ozeki K, Matsuo N, Muraoka O, Kikuchi T, Yamada T, Tanaka R, Morikawa T. Hepatoprotective Limonoids from Andiroba (Carapa guianensis). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):591.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Miyazawa, Seiya; Ozeki, Kaiten; Matsuo, Natsuko; Muraoka, Osamu; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Morikawa, Toshio. 2016. "Hepatoprotective Limonoids from Andiroba (Carapa guianensis)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 4: 591.
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