Next Article in Journal
Insights into the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Human RNase6: Structural Determinants for Bacterial Cell Agglutination and Membrane Permeation
Next Article in Special Issue
Varicella Skin Complications in Childhood: A Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Serum Uric Acid and Ferritin in the Development and Progression of NAFLD
Previous Article in Special Issue
Campylobacter jejuni Fatal Sepsis in a Patient with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review of a Difficult Diagnosis
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 549; doi:10.3390/ijms17040549

The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010–2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria

1
Department of Health Promotion Sciences and Mother-Child Care “G. D’Alessandro”—Hygiene Section, University of Palermo, Palermo 90127, Italy
2
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, University Hospital “Paolo Giaccone”, Palermo 90127, Italy
3
Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa 16132, Italy
4
Hygiene Unit, IRCCS University Hospital “San Martino”—IST National Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa 16132, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanna Esposito
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2646 KB, uploaded 13 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza B; lineages; viral evolution; surveillance; molecular epidemiology; influenza-like illness; Sicily; Liguria; Italy influenza B; lineages; viral evolution; surveillance; molecular epidemiology; influenza-like illness; Sicily; Liguria; Italy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tramuto, F.; Orsi, A.; Maida, C.M.; Costantino, C.; Trucchi, C.; Alicino, C.; Vitale, F.; Ansaldi, F. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010–2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 549.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top