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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 537; doi:10.3390/ijms17040537

Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

1
Servicio de Farmacología Clíınica and Unidad de Gestión Clínica (UGC) de Gastroenterología y Hepatología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Universidad de Málaga (UMA), 29010 Málaga, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), 28029 Madrid, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Igor P. Pogribny
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug, Herb, and Dietary Supplement Hepatotoxicity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [287 KB, uploaded 9 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary supplements; liver injury; hepatotoxicity; anabolic steroids; green tea; Herbalife products; Hydroxycut; Oxyelite Pro; vitamin A; usnic acid dietary supplements; liver injury; hepatotoxicity; anabolic steroids; green tea; Herbalife products; Hydroxycut; Oxyelite Pro; vitamin A; usnic acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Cortés, M.; Robles-Díaz, M.; Ortega-Alonso, A.; Medina-Caliz, I.; Andrade, R.J. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 537.

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