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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 538; doi:10.3390/ijms17040538

Pathogens Use and Abuse MicroRNAs to Deceive the Immune System

Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nalini Santanam and William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 7 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 9 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Abstract

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) play a role in the survival and amplification of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. There are various ways in which pathogens can benefit from miR-directed alterations in protein translation and signal transduction. Members of the herpesviridae family have previously been shown to encode multiple miRs, while the production of miRs by viruses like HIV-1 remained controversial. Recently, novel techniques have facilitated the elucidation of true miR targets by establishing miR-argonaute association and the subsequent interactions with their cognate cellular mRNAs. This, in combination with miR reporter assays, has generated physiologically relevant evidence that miRs from the herpesviridae family have the potential to downregulate multiple cellular targets, which are involved in immune activation, cytokine signaling and apoptosis. In addition, viruses and bacteria have also been linked to the induction of host cellular miRs, which have the capacity to mitigate immune activation, cytokine signaling and apoptosis. Interfering with miR expression may be clinically relevant. In the case of hepatitis C infection, the cellular miR-122 is already targeted therapeutically. This not only exemplifies how important miRs can be for the survival of specific viruses, but it also delineates the potential to use miRs as drug targets. In this paper we will review the latest reports on viruses and bacteria that abuse miR regulation for their benefit, which may be of interest in the development of miR-directed therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; pathogens; immune system; microRNA epigenetics; pathogens; immune system; microRNA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Flór, T.B.; Blom, B. Pathogens Use and Abuse MicroRNAs to Deceive the Immune System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 538.

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