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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 463; doi:10.3390/ijms17040463

Exploring Erythropoietin and G-CSF Combination Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients

1,2
and
1,2,3,4,*
1
Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
2
Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
3
Rehabilitation Institute of Neuromuscular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
4
Yonsei Stem Cell Research Center, Avison Biomedical Research Center, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai and Cesar Borlongan
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [774 KB, uploaded 15 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are known to have neuroprotective actions. Based on previous reports showing the synergistic effects of EPO+G-CSF combination therapy in experimental models, we investigated the safety of EPO+G-CSF combination therapy in patients with chronic stroke. In a pilot study, 3 patients were treated with EPO and G-CSF for 5 consecutive days, with follow-up on day 30. In an exploratory double-blind study, 6 patients were allocated to treatment with either EPO+G-CSF or placebo. Treatment was applied once a day for 5 days per month over 3 months. Participants were followed up for 6 months. To substantiate safety, vital signs, adverse events, and hematological values were measured on days 0, 5, and 30 in each cycle and on day 180. Functional outcomes were determined on day 0 and 180. In the laboratory measurements, EPO+G-CSF combination therapy significantly elevated erythropoietin, CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, white blood cells, and neutrophils on day 5 of each cycle. There were no observations of serious adverse events. In the functional outcomes, the grip power of the dominant hand was increased in the EPO+G-CSF treatment group. In conclusion, this exploratory study suggests a novel strategy of EPO+G-CSF combination therapy for stroke patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: erythropoietin; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; combination therapy; stroke; neuroprotection erythropoietin; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; combination therapy; stroke; neuroprotection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shin, Y.-K.; Cho, S.-R. Exploring Erythropoietin and G-CSF Combination Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 463.

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