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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 461; doi:10.3390/ijms17040461

Linking Pesticide Exposure with Pediatric Leukemia: Potential Underlying Mechanisms

1
Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada 18016, Spain
2
Department of Biomedicine, Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain
3
Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona 08010, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Baohong Zhang
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
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Abstract

Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, representing 30% of all childhood cancers. The disease arises from recurrent genetic insults that block differentiation of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs) and drives uncontrolled proliferation and survival of the differentiation-blocked clone. Pediatric leukemia is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous with an obscure etiology. The interaction between genetic factors and environmental agents represents a potential etiological driver. Although information is limited, the principal toxic mechanisms of potential leukemogenic agents (e.g., etoposide, benzene metabolites, bioflavonoids and some pesticides) include topoisomerase II inhibition and/or excessive generation of free radicals, which may induce DNA single- and double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) in early HSPCs. Chromosomal rearrangements (duplications, deletions and translocations) may occur if these lesions are not properly repaired. The initiating hit usually occurs in utero and commonly leads to the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins. Subsequent cooperating hits define the disease latency and occur after birth and may be of a genetic, epigenetic or immune nature (i.e., delayed infection-mediated immune deregulation). Here, we review the available experimental and epidemiological evidence linking pesticide exposure to infant and childhood leukemia and provide a mechanistic basis to support the association, focusing on early initiating molecular events. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant and childhood leukemia; hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells; chromosomal rearrangements; topoisomerase II; pesticides; DNA double-strand break; oxidative stress infant and childhood leukemia; hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells; chromosomal rearrangements; topoisomerase II; pesticides; DNA double-strand break; oxidative stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hernández, A.F.; Menéndez, P. Linking Pesticide Exposure with Pediatric Leukemia: Potential Underlying Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 461.

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