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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 452; doi:10.3390/ijms17040452

Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of the Effects of Reprotoxicants

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Ramiro de Maeztu 9, Madrid 28040, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Baohong Zhang
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
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Abstract

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulatory elements of gene expression and chromatin structure. Both long and small ncRNAs can also act as inductors and targets of epigenetic programs. Epigenetic patterns can be transmitted from one cell to the daughter cell, but, importantly, also through generations. Diversity of ncRNAs is emerging with new and surprising roles. Functional interactions among ncRNAs and between specific ncRNAs and structural elements of the chromatin are drawing a complex landscape. In this scenario, epigenetic changes induced by environmental stressors, including reprotoxicants, can explain some transgenerationally-transmitted phenotypes in non-Mendelian ways. In this review, we analyze mechanisms of action of reprotoxicants upon different types of ncRNAs and epigenetic modifications causing transgenerationally transmitted characters through germ cells but affecting germ cells and reproductive systems. A functional model of epigenetic mechanisms of transgenerational transmission ncRNAs-mediated is also proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: reproduction; reprotoxicology; reprotoxicants; non-coding RNAs; epigenetics; transgenerational transmission; endocrine disruptors; microRNAs; piRNAs; lncRNAs reproduction; reprotoxicology; reprotoxicants; non-coding RNAs; epigenetics; transgenerational transmission; endocrine disruptors; microRNAs; piRNAs; lncRNAs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Larriba, E.; del Mazo, J. Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of the Effects of Reprotoxicants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 452.

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