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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 337; doi:10.3390/ijms17030337

From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), PTS Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, Edificio Bioregión, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
IFAPA Center of “Alameda del Obispo”, Avda. Menéndez Pidal s/n, E-14004 Córdoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 14 January 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Research of Functional and Nutraceutical Food)
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Abstract

Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic compounds; EVOO; olive fruit; six cultivars; transfer rates phenolic compounds; EVOO; olive fruit; six cultivars; transfer rates
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Talhaoui, N.; Gómez-Caravaca, A.M.; León, L.; De la Rosa, R.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A.; Segura-Carretero, A. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 337.

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