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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 394; doi:10.3390/ijms17030394

Phenolic Profile and Biological Activities of the Pepino (Solanum muricatum) Fruit and Its Wild Relative S. caripense

1
Instituto de Conservación y Mejora de la Agrodiversidad Valenciana, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura–Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Food Science and Technology Department, Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods. Campus Universitario de Espinardo–25, Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Segura-Carretero
Received: 9 February 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Research of Functional and Nutraceutical Food)
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Abstract

The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is an edible and juicy fruit native to the Andean region which is becoming increasingly important. However, little information is available on its phenolic composition and bioactive properties. Four pepino varieties (37-A, El Camino, Puzol, and Valencia) and one accession (E-7) of its close wild relative S. caripense were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MSn/ESI. Twenty-four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected (5 to 16 compounds per variety or accession), with differences of more than two-fold for their total content among the materials studied. The major phenolics in the pepino varieties were chlorogenic acids and derivatives, while in S. caripense a caffeoyl-synapoyl-quinic acid was the major compound. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), and TRC (total reducing capacity) tests) was higher in S. caripense. Pepino and S. caripense extracts were not toxic for RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the raw extracts inhibited NO production of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages by 36% (El Camino) to 67% (37-A). No single variety ranked high simultaneously for hydroxycinnamic acids content, antioxidant activity and biological activity. We suggest the screening of large collections of germplasm or the use of complementary crosses between Puzol (high for hydroxycinnamic acids and biological activity) and S. caripense E-7 (high for antioxidant activity) to select and breed pepino varieties with enhanced properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; biological activity; HPLC-DAD-MSn/ESI; macrophages antioxidants; biological activity; HPLC-DAD-MSn/ESI; macrophages
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herraiz, F.J.; Villaño, D.; Plazas, M.; Vilanova, S.; Ferreres, F.; Prohens, J.; Moreno, D.A. Phenolic Profile and Biological Activities of the Pepino (Solanum muricatum) Fruit and Its Wild Relative S. caripense. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 394.

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