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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 222; doi:10.3390/ijms17020222

Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California—Campus Tijuana, Calzada Universidad 14418, Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, C.P. 22390 Tijuana, B.C., Mexico
2
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Centro de Biotecnología FEMSA, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, C.P. 64849 Monterrey, N.L., México
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Segura-Carretero and Ana Maria Gómez Caravaca
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Research of Functional and Nutraceutical Food)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2623 KB, uploaded 17 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). View Full-Text
Keywords: enriched foods; black bean seed coat; flavonoids; saponins; whole wheat bread; colon cancer enriched foods; black bean seed coat; flavonoids; saponins; whole wheat bread; colon cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chávez-Santoscoy, R.A.; Lazo-Vélez, M.A.; Serna-Sáldivar, S.O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 222.

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