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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 299; doi:10.3390/ijms17030299

Nutrigenetics and Nutrimiromics of the Circadian System: The Time for Human Health

Nutritional Genomics of Cardiovascular Disease and Obesity, IMDEA Food CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 23 January 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Abstract

Even though the rhythmic oscillations of life have long been known, the precise molecular mechanisms of the biological clock are only recently being explored. Circadian rhythms are found in virtually all organisms and affect our lives. Thus, it is not surprising that the correct running of this clock is essential for cellular functions and health. The circadian system is composed of an intricate network of genes interwined in an intrincated transcriptional/translational feedback loop. The precise oscillation of this clock is controlled by the circadian genes that, in turn, regulate the circadian oscillations of many cellular pathways. Consequently, variations in these genes have been associated with human diseases and metabolic disorders. From a nutrigenetics point of view, some of these variations modify the individual response to the diet and interact with nutrients to modulate such response. This circadian feedback loop is also epigenetically modulated. Among the epigenetic mechanisms that control circadian rhythms, microRNAs are the least studied ones. In this paper, we review the variants of circadian-related genes associated to human disease and nutritional response and discuss the current knowledge about circadian microRNAs. Accumulated evidence on the genetics and epigenetics of the circadian system points to important implications of chronotherapy in the clinical practice, not only in terms of pharmacotherapy, but also for dietary interventions. However, interventional studies (especially nutritional trials) that include chronotherapy are scarce. Given the importance of chronobiology in human health such studies are warranted in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian-related genes; gene-diet interactions; personalized nutrition; circadian-microRNAs; single nucleotide polymorphisms; cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; obesity circadian-related genes; gene-diet interactions; personalized nutrition; circadian-microRNAs; single nucleotide polymorphisms; cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Micó, V.; Díez-Ricote, L.; Daimiel, L. Nutrigenetics and Nutrimiromics of the Circadian System: The Time for Human Health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 299.

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