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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 375; doi:10.3390/ijms17030375

Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil

1
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
School of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
3
Endocrinology and Nephrology, Department of Kinesiology, CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
4
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 3 February 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Abstract

(1) Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene–diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2) Methods: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3) Results: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191)), but relative quantification (RQ) within the −0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all). (4) Conclusions: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene–diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; polymorphism; inflammation; nutrigenetics omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; polymorphism; inflammation; nutrigenetics
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Cormier, H.; Rudkowska, I.; Lemieux, S.; Couture, P.; Vohl, M.-C. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 375.

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