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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 265; doi:10.3390/ijms17020265

Exploring the Role of Different Neonatal Nutrition Regimens during the First Week of Life by Urinary GC-MS Metabolomics

1
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Puericulture Institute and Neonatal Section, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
2
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
3
Neonatal Intensive Unit and Neonatal Pathology, “S. Giovanni Calibita” Hospital, Fatebenefratelli Isola Tiberina, 00186 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vicki Flood
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2472 KB, uploaded 23 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this study, a gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics study was applied to examine urine metabolite profiles of different classes of neonates under different nutrition regimens. The study population included 35 neonates, exclusively either breastfed or formula milk fed, in a seven-day timeframe. Urine samples were collected from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), large for gestational age (LGA), and appropriate gestational age (AGA) neonates. At birth, IUGR and LGA neonates showed similarities in their urine metabolite profiles that differed from AGA. When neonates started milk feeding, their metabolite excretion profile was strongly characterized by the different diet regimens. After three days of formula milk nutrition, urine had higher levels of glucose, galactose, glycine and myo-inositol, while up-regulated aconitic acid, aminomalonic acid and adipic acid were found in breast milk fed neonates. At seven days, neonates fed with formula milk shared higher levels of pseudouridine with IUGR and LGA at birth. Breastfed neonates shared up-regulated pyroglutamic acid, citric acid, and homoserine, with AGA at birth. The role of most important metabolites is herein discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; formula milk; metabonomics; IUGR; LGA; AGA; myo-inositol; glycine; pseudouridine breastfeeding; formula milk; metabonomics; IUGR; LGA; AGA; myo-inositol; glycine; pseudouridine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dessì, A.; Murgia, A.; Agostino, R.; Pattumelli, M.G.; Schirru, A.; Scano, P.; Fanos, V.; Caboni, P. Exploring the Role of Different Neonatal Nutrition Regimens during the First Week of Life by Urinary GC-MS Metabolomics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 265.

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