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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 226; doi:10.3390/ijms17020226

Chemically Induced Reprogramming of Somatic Cells to Pluripotent Stem Cells and Neural Cells

1
and
1,2,3,*
1
Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
2
Department of Developmental Neuroscience, Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
3
Holland Regenerative Medicine Program, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
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Abstract

The ability to generate transplantable neural cells in a large quantity in the laboratory is a critical step in the field of developing stem cell regenerative medicine for neural repair. During the last few years, groundbreaking studies have shown that cell fate of adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed through lineage specific expression of transcription factors (TFs)-and defined culture conditions. This key concept has been used to identify a number of potent small molecules that could enhance the efficiency of reprogramming with TFs. Recently, a growing number of studies have shown that small molecules targeting specific epigenetic and signaling pathways can replace all of the reprogramming TFs. Here, we provide a detailed review of the studies reporting the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs), neural stem cells (ciNSCs), and neurons (ciN). We also discuss the main mechanisms of actions and the pathways that the small molecules regulate during chemical reprogramming. View Full-Text
Keywords: reprogramming; small molecules; chemical reprogramming; induced pluripotent stem cells; neural stem cells; neurons reprogramming; small molecules; chemical reprogramming; induced pluripotent stem cells; neural stem cells; neurons
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Biswas, D.; Jiang, P. Chemically Induced Reprogramming of Somatic Cells to Pluripotent Stem Cells and Neural Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 226.

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