Next Article in Journal
Towards Clinical Application of Neurotrophic Factors to the Auditory Nerve; Assessment of Safety and Efficacy by a Systematic Review of Neurotrophic Treatments in Humans
Next Article in Special Issue
Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Inherited Variants in Wnt Pathway Genes Influence Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1979; doi:10.3390/ijms17121979

The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines

1
Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Institute, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
2
Koshiro Company Ltd., 2-5-8 Doshomachi, Chuo-ku, Osaka 541-0045, Japan
3
Antiaging Center, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gopinadhan Paliyath
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5673 KB, uploaded 26 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1) and II (2), floratheasaponin A (3), and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4), flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of “tea flower”, the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the saponins (13, IC50 = 4.4–14.1, 6.2–18.2, 4.5–17.3, and 19.3–40.6 µM, respectively) were more potent than those of catechins, flavonoids, and caffeine. To characterize the mechanisms of action of principal saponin constituents 13, a flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) double staining in HSC-2 cells was performed. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were also detected after 48 h. These results suggested that antiproliferative activities of 13 induce apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-3/7. View Full-Text
Keywords: chakasaponin; floratheasaponin; (–)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate; anti-proliferative activity; tea flower; Camellia sinensis; apoptosis chakasaponin; floratheasaponin; (–)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate; anti-proliferative activity; tea flower; Camellia sinensis; apoptosis
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kitagawa, N.; Morikawa, T.; Motai, C.; Ninomiya, K.; Okugawa, S.; Nishida, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Muraoka, O. The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1979.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top