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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1944; doi:10.3390/ijms17111944

Early Antipsychotic Treatment in Juvenile Rats Elicits Long-Term Alterations to the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System

1
Antipsychotic Research Laboratory, Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Domenico De Berardis and Michele Fornaro
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antipsychotics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4989 KB, uploaded 22 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Prescription of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to children has substantially increased in recent years. Whilst current investigations into potential long-term effects have uncovered some alterations to adult behaviours, further investigations into potential changes to neurotransmitter systems are required. The current study investigated potential long-term changes to the adult dopamine (DA) system following aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone treatment in female and male juvenile rats. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated-TH (p-TH), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and D1 and D2 receptors were measured via Western blot and/or receptor autoradiography. Aripiprazole decreased TH and D1 receptor levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and p-TH levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of females, whilst TH levels decreased in the PFC of males. Olanzapine decreased PFC p-TH levels and increased D2 receptor expression in the PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females only. Additionally, risperidone treatment increased D1 receptor levels in the hippocampus of females, whilst, in males, p-TH levels increased in the PFC and hippocampus, D1 receptor expression decreased in the NAc, and DAT levels decreased in the caudate putamen (CPu), and elevated in the VTA. These results suggest that early treatment with various APDs can cause different long-term alterations in the adult brain, across both treatment groups and genders. View Full-Text
Keywords: antipsychotic; dopamine; risperidone; olanzapine; aripiprazole; development; juvenile antipsychotic; dopamine; risperidone; olanzapine; aripiprazole; development; juvenile
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

De Santis, M.; Lian, J.; Huang, X.-F.; Deng, C. Early Antipsychotic Treatment in Juvenile Rats Elicits Long-Term Alterations to the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1944.

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