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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1833; doi:10.3390/ijms17111833

Comparative Analysis of Toxic Responses of Organic Extracts from Diesel and Selected Alternative Fuels Engine Emissions in Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
Faculty of Safety Engineering, VSB–Technical University of Ostrava, Lumirova 13, 700 30 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benatska 2, 128 01 Prague 2, Czech Republic
Center of Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Cybernetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Karlovo namesti 13, 121 35 Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 296/70, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Global Climate Change and Atmospheric Pollution)
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This study used toxicogenomics to identify the complex biological response of human lung BEAS-2B cells treated with organic components of particulate matter in the exhaust of a diesel engine. First, we characterized particles from standard diesel (B0), biodiesel (methylesters of rapeseed oil) in its neat form (B100) and 30% by volume blend with diesel fuel (B30), and neat hydrotreated vegetable oil (NEXBTL100). The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives in organic extracts was the lowest for NEXBTL100 and higher for biodiesel. We further analyzed global gene expression changes in BEAS-2B cells following 4 h and 24 h treatment with extracts. The concentrations of 50 µg extract/mL induced a similar molecular response. The common processes induced after 4 h treatment included antioxidant defense, metabolism of xenobiotics and lipids, suppression of pro-apoptotic stimuli, or induction of plasminogen activating cascade; 24 h treatment affected fewer processes, particularly those involved in detoxification of xenobiotics, including PAHs. The majority of distinctively deregulated genes detected after both 4 h and 24 h treatment were induced by NEXBTL100; the deregulated genes included, e.g., those involved in antioxidant defense and cell cycle regulation and proliferation. B100 extract, with the highest PAH concentrations, additionally affected several cell cycle regulatory genes and p38 signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: diesel; alternative fuels; diesel exhaust particles; organic extracts; gene expression profiles diesel; alternative fuels; diesel exhaust particles; organic extracts; gene expression profiles

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Libalova, H.; Rossner,, P., Jr.; Vrbova, K.; Brzicova, T.; Sikorova, J.; Vojtisek-Lom, M.; Beranek, V.; Klema, J.; Ciganek, M.; Neca, J.; Pencikova, K.; Machala, M.; Topinka, J. Comparative Analysis of Toxic Responses of Organic Extracts from Diesel and Selected Alternative Fuels Engine Emissions in Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1833.

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