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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1674; doi:10.3390/ijms17101674

Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

1
National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), UMR 1033, Lyon 69372, France
2
Faculty of Medicine RTH Laennec, University of Lyon, Villeurbanne 69372, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Alfonsina Desiderio
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1197 KB, uploaded 8 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone; metastasis; cancer; microenvironment; metastatic niche bone; metastasis; cancer; microenvironment; metastatic niche
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kan, C.; Vargas, G.; Pape, F.L.; Clézardin, P. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1674.

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