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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1664; doi:10.3390/ijms17101664

Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

1,†
,
1,†
,
1
,
1
,
2
and
1,3,*
1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
2
School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
3
South China Sea Bioresource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chang Won Choi
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 1 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1201 KB, uploaded 1 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: mushroom; Thelephora ganbajun; antioxidant; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; antiproliferative activity mushroom; Thelephora ganbajun; antioxidant; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; antiproliferative activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, D.-P.; Zheng, J.; Zhou, Y.; Li, Y.; Li, S.; Li, H.-B. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1664.

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