Next Article in Journal
Protein/CaCO3/Chitin Nanofiber Complex Prepared from Crab Shells by Simple Mechanical Treatment and Its Effect on Plant Growth
Next Article in Special Issue
Fto-Deficiency Affects the Gene and MicroRNA Expression Involved in Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipose Tissue in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Fine Mapping of Virescent Leaf Gene v-1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1597; doi:10.3390/ijms17101597

Vitamin D-Related Gene Polymorphisms, Plasma 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D, Cigarette Smoke and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Risk

1
School of Life Sciences, The Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
2
Yunnan Key laboratory for Basic Research on Bone and Joint Diseases, Yunnan Stem Cell Translational Research Center, Kunming University, Kunming 650500, China
3
Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming 650101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marica Bakovic
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics of Risk Factors for Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [646 KB, uploaded 22 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Epidemiological studies regarding the relationship between vitamin D, genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D metabolism, cigarette smoke and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk have not been investigated comprehensively. To search for additional evidence, the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and radioimmunoassay method were utilized to evaluate 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D receptor (VDR), 6 SNPs in 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), 2 SNPs in 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and 2 SNPs in vitamin D-binding protein (group-specific component, GC) and plasma vitamin D levels in 426 NSCLC cases and 445 controls from China. Exposure to cigarette smoke was ascertained through questionnaire information. Multivariable linear regressions and mixed effects models were used in statistical analysis. The results showed that Reference SNP rs6068816 in CYP24A1, rs1544410 and rs731236 in VDR and rs7041 in GC were statistically significant in relation to reduction in NSCLC risk (p < 0.001–0.05). No significant connection was seen between NSCLC risk and overall plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, regardless of smoking status. However, the mutation genotype of CYP24A1 rs6068816 and VDR rs1544410 were also significantly associated with increased 25(OH)D levels only in both the smoker and non-smoker cases (p < 0.01–0.05). Meanwhile, smokers and non-smokers with mutated homozygous rs2181874 in CYP24A1 had significantly increased NSCLC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–3.43; p = 0.031; OR = 3.57, 95% CI 2.66–4.74; p = 0.019, respectively). Smokers with mutated homozygous rs10735810 in VDR had significantly increased NSCLC risk (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.41–2.76; p = 0.015). However, smokers with mutated homozygous rs6068816 in CYP24A1 had significantly decreased NSCLC risk (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27–1.02; p = 0.006); and smokers and non-smokers with mutated homozygous rs1544410 in VDR had significantly decreased NSCLC risk (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.34–1.17; p = 0.002; OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.20–0.69; p = 0.001, respectively). There are significant joint effects between smoking and CYP24A1 rs2181874, CYP24A1 rs6068816, VDR rs10735810, and VDR rs1544410 (p < 0.01–0.05). Smokers with mutated homozygous rs10735810 in VDR had significantly increased NSCLC risk (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.41–2.76; p = 0.015). In summary, the results suggested that the lower the distribution of vitamin D concentration, the more the genetic variations in CYP24A1, VDR and GC genes may be associated with NSCLC risk. In addition, there are significant joint associations of cigarette smoking and vitamin D deficiency on NSCLC risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; NSCLC; gene polymorphisms; risk; smoke vitamin D; NSCLC; gene polymorphisms; risk; smoke
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.; Cheng, J.; Yang, K. Vitamin D-Related Gene Polymorphisms, Plasma 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D, Cigarette Smoke and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Risk. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1597.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top