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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 84; doi:10.3390/ijms17010084

The Importance of Thrombin in Cerebral Injury and Disease

1
Institute for Neurosurgical Pathophysiology, University Medicine Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, Mainz 55101, Germany
2
Clinic for Neurosurgery, HELIOS Dr. Horst Schmidt Clinic (HSK) Wiesbaden, Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse 100, Wiesbaden 65197, Germany
3
Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), University Medicine Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, Mainz 55101, Germany
5
Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine University, Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, Mainz 55101, Germany
6
Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, Mainz 55101, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 30 December 2015 / Published: 11 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2015)
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Abstract

There is increasing evidence that prothrombin and its active derivative thrombin are expressed locally in the central nervous system. So far, little is known about the physiological and pathophysiological functions exerted by thrombin in the human brain. Extra-hepatic prothrombin expression has been identified in neuronal cells and astrocytes via mRNA measurement. The actual amount of brain derived prothrombin is expected to be 1% or less compared to that in the liver. The role in brain injury depends upon its concentration, as higher amounts cause neuroinflammation and apoptosis, while lower concentrations might even be cytoprotective. Its involvement in numerous diseases like Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia and haemorrhage is becoming increasingly clear. This review focuses on elucidation of the cerebral thrombin expression, local generation and its role in injury and disease of the central nervous system. View Full-Text
Keywords: thrombin; prothrombin; cerebral thrombin system; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; multiple sclerosis; stroke; intracerebral haemorrhage thrombin; prothrombin; cerebral thrombin system; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; multiple sclerosis; stroke; intracerebral haemorrhage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krenzlin, H.; Lorenz, V.; Danckwardt, S.; Kempski, O.; Alessandri, B. The Importance of Thrombin in Cerebral Injury and Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 84.

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