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Correction published on 17 December 2015, see Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 30103-30104.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21153-21176; doi:10.3390/ijms160921153

Different Roles of GRP78 on Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Cartilage Development

1
Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Core Facility of Development Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
2
Laboratory of Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Masato Matsuoka
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5240 KB, uploaded 17 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Eukaryotic cells possess several mechanisms to adapt to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and thereby survive. ER stress activates a set of signaling pathways collectively termed as the unfolded protein response (UPR). We previously reported that Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) mediates mild ER stress and activates UPR signal molecules in chondrogenesis. The mammalian UPR protects the cell against the stress of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Failure to adapt to ER stress causes the UPR to trigger apoptosis. Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), as an important molecular chaperone in UPR signaling pathways, is responsible for binding to misfolded or unfolded protein during ER stress. However the influence on GRP78 in BMP2-induced chondrocyte differentiation has not yet been elucidated and the molecular mechanism underlyng these processes remain unexplored. Herein we demonstrate that overexpression of GRP78 enhanced cell proliferation in chondrocyte development with G1 phase advance, S phase increasing and G2-M phase transition. Furthermore, overexpression of GRP78 inhibited ER stress-mediated apoptosis and then reduced apoptosis in chondrogenesis induced by BMP2, as assayed by cleaved caspase3, caspase12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP/DDIT3/GADD153), p-JNK (phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase) expression during the course of chondrocyte differentiation by Western blot. In addition, flow cytometry (FCM) assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and immune-histochemistry analysis also proved this result in vitro and in vivo. It was demonstrated that GRP78 knockdown via siRNA activated the ER stress-specific caspase cascade in developing chondrocyte tissue. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel critical role of GRP78 in regulating ER stress-mediated apoptosis in cartilage development and the molecular mechanisms involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: GRP78; ER stress; apoptosis; unfolded protein response; cartilage development GRP78; ER stress; apoptosis; unfolded protein response; cartilage development
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiong, Z.; Jiang, R.; Li, X.; Liu, Y.; Guo, F. Different Roles of GRP78 on Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Cartilage Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 21153-21176.

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