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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20674-20684; doi:10.3390/ijms160920674

Use of Copper to Selectively Inhibit Brachionus calyciflorus (Predator) Growth in Chlorella kessleri (Prey) Mass Cultures for Algae Biodiesel Production

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 200 Bobby Dodd Way, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA
School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 310 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher Q. Lan
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 31 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalgal Biotechnology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1328 KB, uploaded 31 August 2015]   |  


A single Brachionus rotifer can consume thousands of algae cells per hour causing an algae pond to crash within days of infection. Thus, there is a great need to reduce rotifers in order for algal biofuel production to become reality. Copper can selectively inhibit rotifers in algae ponds, thereby protecting the algae crop. Differential toxicity tests were conducted to compare the copper sensitivity of a model rotifer—B. calyciflorus and an alga, C. kessleri. The rotifer LC50 was <0.1 ppm while the alga was not affected up to 5 ppm Cu(II). The low pH of the rotifer stomach may make it more sensitive to copper. However, when these cultures were combined, a copper concentration of 1.5 ppm was needed to inhibit the rotifer as the alga bound the copper, decreasing its bioavailability. Copper (X ppm) had no effect on downstream fatty acid methyl ester extraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel production; algae pond crash; toxicity; rotifer; copper biodiesel production; algae pond crash; toxicity; rotifer; copper

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pradeep, V.; Van Ginkel, S.W.; Park, S.; Igou, T.; Yi, C.; Fu, H.; Johnston, R.; Snell, T.; Chen, Y. Use of Copper to Selectively Inhibit Brachionus calyciflorus (Predator) Growth in Chlorella kessleri (Prey) Mass Cultures for Algae Biodiesel Production. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 20674-20684.

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