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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17193-17230; doi:10.3390/ijms160817193

Protein Folding and Mechanisms of Proteostasis

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Baja California 21000, México
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Academic Editor: Salvador Ventura
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Protein Folding)
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Abstract

Highly sophisticated mechanisms that modulate protein structure and function, which involve synthesis and degradation, have evolved to maintain cellular homeostasis. Perturbations in these mechanisms can lead to protein dysfunction as well as deleterious cell processes. Therefore in recent years the etiology of a great number of diseases has been attributed to failures in mechanisms that modulate protein structure. Interconnections among metabolic and cell signaling pathways are critical for homeostasis to converge on mechanisms associated with protein folding as well as for the preservation of the native structure of proteins. For instance, imbalances in secretory protein synthesis pathways lead to a condition known as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which elicits the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). Therefore, taking this into consideration, a key part of this paper is developed around the protein folding phenomenon, and cellular mechanisms which support this pivotal condition. We provide an overview of chaperone protein function, UPR via, spatial compartmentalization of protein folding, proteasome role, autophagy, as well as the intertwining between these processes. Several diseases are known to have a molecular etiology in the malfunction of mechanisms responsible for protein folding and in the shielding of native structure, phenomena which ultimately lead to misfolded protein accumulation. This review centers on our current knowledge about pathways that modulate protein folding, and cell responses involved in protein homeostasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteins; folding; proteostasis; misfolding proteins; folding; proteostasis; misfolding
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Díaz-Villanueva, J.F.; Díaz-Molina, R.; García-González, V. Protein Folding and Mechanisms of Proteostasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 17193-17230.

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