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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 16545-16559; doi:10.3390/ijms160716545

High Genetic Diversity of Microbial Cellulase and Hemicellulase Genes in the Hindgut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae

1
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Institute of Urban and Horticultural Pests, Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Institute of Biological Resources, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330096, China
3
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for the Characteristic Resources Exploitation of Dabie Mountains, Huanggang 438000, China
4
Innovative Farming Systems, AgResearch, Lincoln Research Centre, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ritva Tikkanen
Received: 25 May 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

In this study, we used a culture-independent method based on library construction and sequencing to analyze the genetic diversity of the cellulase and hemicellulase genes of the bacterial community resident in the hindgut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. The results indicate that there is a large, diverse set of bacterial genes encoding lignocellulose hydrolysis enzymes in the hindgut of H. parallela. The total of 101 distinct gene fragments (similarity <95%) of glycosyl hydrolase families including GH2 (24 genes), GH8 (27 genes), GH10 (19 genes), GH11 (14 genes) and GH36 (17 genes) families was retrieved, and certain sequences of GH2 (10.61%), GH8 (3.33%), and GH11 (18.42%) families had <60% identities with known sequences in GenBank, indicating their novelty. Based on phylogenetic analysis, sequences from hemicellulase families were related to enzymes from Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Fragments from cellulase family were most associated with the phylum of Proteobacteria. Furthermore, a full-length endo-xylanase gene was obtained, and the enzyme exhibited activity over a broad range of pH levels. Our results indicate that there are large number of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria in the hindgut of H. parallela larvae, and these symbiotic bacteria play an important role in the degradation of roots and other organic matter for the host insect. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulase; hemicellulase; gene diversity; Holotrichia parallela cellulase; hemicellulase; gene diversity; Holotrichia parallela
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sheng, P.; Li, Y.; Marshall, S.D.G.; Zhang, H. High Genetic Diversity of Microbial Cellulase and Hemicellulase Genes in the Hindgut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 16545-16559.

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