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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 14912-14932; doi:10.3390/ijms160714912

Synthesis of Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Various Bio-Derived Platform Molecules

Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Iolanda Francolini
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 2 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry and the Biorefinery)
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Abstract

Utilisation of bio-derived platform molecules in polymer synthesis has advantages which are, broadly, twofold; to digress from crude oil dependence of the polymer industry and secondly to reduce the environmental impact of the polymer synthesis through the inherent functionality of the bio-derived platform molecules. Bulk polymerisation of bio-derived unsaturated di-acids has been employed to produce unsaturated polyester (UPEs) which have been analysed by GPC, TGA, DSC and NMR spectroscopy, advancing on the analysis previously reported. UPEs from the diesters of itaconic, succinic, and fumaric acids were successfully synthesised with various diols and polyols to afford resins of MN 480–477,000 and Tg of −30.1 to −16.6 °C with solubilities differing based on starting monomers. This range of properties allows for many applications and importantly due to the surviving Michael acceptor moieties, solubility and cross-linking can be specifically tailored, post polymerisation, to the desired function. An improved synthesis of itaconate and succinate co-polymers, via the initial formation of an itaconate bis-diol, is also demonstrated for the first time, resulting in significantly improved itaconate incorporation. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymerisation; green chemistry; michael addition; polymers; renewable resources; transesterification; bio-derived platform molecules; itaconates polymerisation; green chemistry; michael addition; polymers; renewable resources; transesterification; bio-derived platform molecules; itaconates
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Farmer, T.J.; Castle, R.L.; Clark, J.H.; Macquarrie, D.J. Synthesis of Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Various Bio-Derived Platform Molecules. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14912-14932.

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