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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 14369-14394; doi:10.3390/ijms160714369

Structure and Principal Components Analyses Reveal an Intervarietal Fusion in Malaysian Mistletoe Fig (Ficus deltoidea Jack) Populations

1
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Molecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
3
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
4
Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gopinadhan Paliyath
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1936 KB, uploaded 24 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Genetic structure and biodiversity of the medicinal plant Ficus deltoidea have rarely been scrutinized. To fill these lacunae, five varieties, consisting of 30 F. deltoidea accessions were collected across the country and studied on the basis of molecular and morphological data. Molecular analysis of the accessions was performed using nine Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, seven of which were detected as polymorphic markers. ISSR-based clustering generated four clusters supporting the geographical distribution of the accessions to some extent. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient implied the existence of low diversity (0.50–0.75) in the studied population. STRUCTURE analysis showed a low differentiation among the sampling sites, while a moderate varietal differentiation was unveiled with two main populations of F. deltoidea. Our observations confirmed the occurrence of gene flow among the accessions; however, the highest degree of this genetic interference was related to the three accessions of FDDJ10, FDTT16 and FDKT25. These three accessions may be the genetic intervarietal fusion points of the plant’s population. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) relying on quantitative morphological characteristics resulted in two principal components with Eigenvalue >1 which made up 89.96% of the total variation. The cluster analysis performed by the eight quantitative characteristics led to grouping the accessions into four clusters with a Euclidean distance ranged between 0.06 and 1.10. Similarly, a four-cluster dendrogram was generated using qualitative traits. The qualitative characteristics were found to be more discriminating in the cluster and PCA analyses, while ISSRs were more informative on the evolution and genetic structure of the population. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic structure; genetic variation; ISSRs; STRUCTURE and cluster analyses; Principal Components Analysis (PCA) genetic structure; genetic variation; ISSRs; STRUCTURE and cluster analyses; Principal Components Analysis (PCA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimisuhara, B.; Valdiani, A.; Shaharuddin, N.A.; Qamaruzzaman, F.; Maziah, M. Structure and Principal Components Analyses Reveal an Intervarietal Fusion in Malaysian Mistletoe Fig (Ficus deltoidea Jack) Populations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14369-14394.

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