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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14276-14290; doi:10.3390/ijms160614276

Biomarkers for Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Microarray Study of Kidney Tissue

1
Biomedical Science, Interdisciplinary Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Center of Excellence in Immunology and Immune-mediated Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
4
Research Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
5
Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
6
Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
7
Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
8
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chak-Sing Lau and Vera Sau-Fong Chan
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1062 KB, uploaded 23 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

The prognosis of severe lupus nephritis (LN) is very different among individual patients. None of the current biomarkers can be used to predict the development of refractory LN. Because kidney histology is the gold standard for diagnosing LN, the authors hypothesize that molecular signatures detected in kidney biopsy tissue may have predictive value in determining the therapeutic response. Sixty-seven patients with biopsy-proven severely active LN by International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification III/IV were recruited. Twenty-three kidney tissue samples were used for RNA microarray analysis, while the remaining 44 samples were used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene expression analysis. From hundreds of differential gene expressions in refractory LN, 12 candidates were selected for validation based on gene expression levels as well as relevant functions. The candidate biomarkers were members of the innate immune response molecules, adhesion molecules, calcium-binding receptors, and paracellular tight junction proteins. S100A8, ANXA13, CLDN19 and FAM46B were identified as the best kidney biomarkers for refractory LN, and COL8A1 was identified as the best marker for early loss of kidney function. These new molecular markers can be used to predict refractory LN and may eventually lead to novel molecular targets for therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: lupus nephritis; biomarker; microarrays; gene expression; chronic kidney disease lupus nephritis; biomarker; microarrays; gene expression; chronic kidney disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Benjachat, T.; Tongyoo, P.; Tantivitayakul, P.; Somparn, P.; Hirankarn, N.; Prom-On, S.; Pisitkun, P.; Leelahavanichkul, A.; Avihingsanon, Y.; Townamchai, N. Biomarkers for Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Microarray Study of Kidney Tissue. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14276-14290.

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