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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12064-12075; doi:10.3390/ijms160612064

The Cross-Bridge of Skeletal Muscle Is Not Synchronized Either by Length or Force Step

Department of Scienze Biomediche e Chirurgiche Specialistiche, Ferrara University, Via Borsari 46, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Force and length steps, applied to a muscle fiber in the isometric state, are believed to synchronize attached cross-bridges. This alleged synchronization facilitates the interpretation of the experiments. A rapid force step elicits an elastic response of the attached cross-bridges, followed by an isotonic phase. The decay of this second isotonic phase is of the first order. This excludes that the attached cross-bridges may decay all at the same time. The change of the X-ray interference distance during the second phase measures the stroke size only in the unrealistic case that the cross-bridges are and remain all attached. A rapid force step does not synchronize attached cross-bridges. The change of X-ray interference during the second phase does not measure the stroke size. These conclusions significantly change the picture of the mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: skeletal muscle contraction; cross-bridges synchronization; interference distance; power stroke skeletal muscle contraction; cross-bridges synchronization; interference distance; power stroke
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Grazi, E. The Cross-Bridge of Skeletal Muscle Is Not Synchronized Either by Length or Force Step. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 12064-12075.

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