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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9167-9195; doi:10.3390/ijms16059167

Proteomic Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in the Hydrogen-Producing Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1

1
Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-806, Korea
2
Marine Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan 426-744, Korea
3
Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Sheehan
Received: 4 February 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Abstract

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 has been shown to produce H2 when using CO, formate, or starch as a growth substrate. This strain can also utilize elemental sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor for heterotrophic growth. To gain insight into sulfur metabolism, the proteome of T. onnurineus NA1 cells grown under sulfur culture conditions was quantified and compared with those grown under H2-evolving substrate culture conditions. Using label-free nano-UPLC-MSE-based comparative proteomic analysis, approximately 38.4% of the total identified proteome (589 proteins) was found to be significantly up-regulated (≥1.5-fold) under sulfur culture conditions. Many of these proteins were functionally associated with carbon fixation, Fe–S cluster biogenesis, ATP synthesis, sulfur reduction, protein glycosylation, protein translocation, and formate oxidation. Based on the abundances of the identified proteins in this and other genomic studies, the pathways associated with reductive sulfur metabolism, H2-metabolism, and oxidative stress defense were proposed. The results also revealed markedly lower expression levels of enzymes involved in the sulfur assimilation pathway, as well as cysteine desulfurase, under sulfur culture condition. The present results provide the first global atlas of proteome changes triggered by sulfur, and may facilitate an understanding of how hyperthermophilic archaea adapt to sulfur-rich, extreme environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Thermococcus onnurineus NA1; nano-UPLC-MSE; comparative proteomics; elemental sulfur; H2S; hydrogenases; sulfur metabolism; oxidative stress defense Thermococcus onnurineus NA1; nano-UPLC-MSE; comparative proteomics; elemental sulfur; H2S; hydrogenases; sulfur metabolism; oxidative stress defense
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moon, Y.-J.; Kwon, J.; Yun, S.-H.; Lim, H.L.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.J.; Kang, S.G.; Lee, J.-H.; Kim, S.I.; Chung, Y.-H. Proteomic Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in the Hydrogen-Producing Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9167-9195.

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