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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9064-9077; doi:10.3390/ijms16059064

Chitosan Derivatives as Important Biorefinery Intermediates. Quaternary Tetraalkylammonium Chitosan Derivatives Utilized in Anion Exchange Chromatography for Perchlorate Removal

Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Main Road Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James H. Clark
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry and the Biorefinery)
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Abstract

There has recently been great interest in the valorization of biomass waste in the context of the biorefinery. The biopolymer chitosan, derived from chitin, is present in large quantities of crustacean waste. This biomass can be converted into value-added products with applications in energy, fuel, chemicals and materials manufacturing. The many reported applications of this polymer can be attributed to its unique properties, such as biocompatibility, chemical versatility, biodegradability and low toxicity. Cost effective water filters which decontaminate water by removal of specific impurities and microbes are in great demand. To address this need, the development of ion exchange resins using environmentally friendly, renewable materials such as biopolymers as solid supports was evaluated. The identification and remediation of perchlorate contaminated water using an easy, inexpensive method has come under the spotlight recently. Similarly, the use of a low cost perchlorate selective solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge that can be rapidly employed in the field is desirable. Chitosan based SPE coupled with colorimetric analytical methods showed promise as a renewable anion exchange support for perchlorate analysis or removal. The polymers displayed perchlorate retention comparable to the commercial standard whereby the quaternized iron loaded polymer TMC-Fe(III) displayed the best activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: biorefinery; chitosan; water treatment; perchlorate; solid phase extraction; iron biorefinery; chitosan; water treatment; perchlorate; solid phase extraction; iron
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sayed, S.; Jardine, A. Chitosan Derivatives as Important Biorefinery Intermediates. Quaternary Tetraalkylammonium Chitosan Derivatives Utilized in Anion Exchange Chromatography for Perchlorate Removal. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9064-9077.

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