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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8844-8860; doi:10.3390/ijms16048844

Effects of Paeonol on Anti-Neuroinflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells

1
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
Department of General Surgery, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung 42743, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Sports and Health, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan
5
Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
7
Department of Cell and Tissue Engineering, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
8
Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2028 KB, uploaded 21 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Increasing studies suggest that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system mediated by microglial activation plays an important role in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Development of planning for microglial suppression is considered a key strategy in the search for neuroprotection. Paeonol is a major phenolic component of Moutan Cortex, widely used as a nutrient supplement in Chinese medicine. In this study, we investigated the effects of paeonol on microglial cells stimulated by inflammagens. Paeonol significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Treatment with paeonol also reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibited an ATP-induced increased cell migratory activity. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of neuroinflammation by paeonol were found to be regulated by phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α (AMPK-α) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 α/β (GSK 3α/β). Treatment with AMPK or GSK3 inhibitors reverse the inhibitory effect of neuroinflammation by paeonol in microglial cells. Furthermore, paeonol treatment also showed significant improvement in the rotarod performance and microglial activation in the mouse model as well. The present study is the first to report a novel inhibitory role of paeonol on neuroinflammation, and presents a new candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: paeonol; microglia; neuroinflammation; AMPK; GSK 3α/β paeonol; microglia; neuroinflammation; AMPK; GSK 3α/β
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.; Lin, H.-Y.; Chen, J.-H.; Tseng, W.-P.; Ko, P.-Y.; Liu, Y.-S.; Yeh, W.-L.; Lu, D.-Y. Effects of Paeonol on Anti-Neuroinflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 8844-8860.

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