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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8826-8843; doi:10.3390/ijms16048826

Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo P. Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, Italy
2
ACEA Pinerolese Industriale SpA, Via Vigone 42, I-10064 Pinerolo, Italy
3
Biowaste Processing, Via XXIV Maggio 25, I-37126 Verona, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 98, I-95123 Catania, Italy
6
Embrapa Solos, Rua Jardim Botânico, 1024, CEP-22460-000 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
7
Chemical and Environmental Science Department, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Limerick, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James H. Clark
Received: 21 March 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry and the Biorefinery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [913 KB, uploaded 21 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: radish; biochar; post harvest tomato plants; plant growth; chlorophyll content; N assimilation radish; biochar; post harvest tomato plants; plant growth; chlorophyll content; N assimilation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Monterumici, C.M.; Rosso, D.; Montoneri, E.; Ginepro, M.; Baglieri, A.; Novotny, E.H.; Kwapinski, W.; Negre, M. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 8826-8843.

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