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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7976-7994; doi:10.3390/ijms16047976

RNA Sequencing Identifies Upregulated Kyphoscoliosis Peptidase and Phosphatidic Acid Signaling Pathways in Muscle Hypertrophy Generated by Transgenic Expression of Myostatin Propeptide

1
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bing Yan
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, plays a crucial negative role in muscle growth. MSTN mutations or inhibitions can dramatically increase muscle mass in most mammal species. Previously, we generated a transgenic mouse model of muscle hypertrophy via the transgenic expression of the MSTN N-terminal propeptide cDNA under the control of the skeletal muscle-specific MLC1 promoter. Here, we compare the mRNA profiles between transgenic mice and wild-type littermate controls with a high-throughput RNA sequencing method. The results show that 132 genes were significantly differentially expressed between transgenic mice and wild-type control mice; 97 of these genes were up-regulated, and 35 genes were down-regulated in the skeletal muscle. Several genes that had not been reported to be involved in muscle hypertrophy were identified, including up-regulated myosin binding protein H (mybph), and zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (Zmpste24). In addition, kyphoscoliosis peptidase (Ky), which plays a vital role in muscle growth, was also up-regulated in the transgenic mice. Interestingly, a pathway analysis based on grouping the differentially expressed genes uncovered that cardiomyopathy-related pathways and phosphatidic acid (PA) pathways (Dgki, Dgkz, Plcd4) were up-regulated. Increased PA signaling may increase mTOR signaling, resulting in skeletal muscle growth. The findings of the RNA sequencing analysis help to understand the molecular mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy caused by MSTN inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: myostatin; RNA-sequencing; transgenic mice; muscle hypertrophy myostatin; RNA-sequencing; transgenic mice; muscle hypertrophy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Miao, Y.; Yang, J.; Xu, Z.; Jing, L.; Zhao, S.; Li, X. RNA Sequencing Identifies Upregulated Kyphoscoliosis Peptidase and Phosphatidic Acid Signaling Pathways in Muscle Hypertrophy Generated by Transgenic Expression of Myostatin Propeptide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7976-7994.

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