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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7535-7550; doi:10.3390/ijms16047535

Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles

1
Department of Chemistry and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA
3
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
5
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
6
Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
7
Centro de Biotecnología FEMSA, Departamento de Biotecnología e Ingeniería de Alimentos, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, NL 64849, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: O. Thompson Mefford
Received: 1 February 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3769 KB, uploaded 3 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzymatic synthesis; magnetic nanoparticles; alkaline phosphatase; magnetic sensing enzymatic synthesis; magnetic nanoparticles; alkaline phosphatase; magnetic sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kolhatkar, A.G.; Dannongoda, C.; Kourentzi, K.; Jamison, A.C.; Nekrashevich, I.; Kar, A.; Cacao, E.; Strych, U.; Rusakova, I.; Martirosyan, K.S.; Litvinov, D.; Lee, T.R.; Willson, R.C. Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7535-7550.

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