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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7535-7550; doi:10.3390/ijms16047535

Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles

Department of Chemistry and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
Centro de Biotecnología FEMSA, Departamento de Biotecnología e Ingeniería de Alimentos, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, NL 64849, Mexico
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: O. Thompson Mefford
Received: 1 February 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3769 KB, uploaded 3 April 2015]   |  


We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzymatic synthesis; magnetic nanoparticles; alkaline phosphatase; magnetic sensing enzymatic synthesis; magnetic nanoparticles; alkaline phosphatase; magnetic sensing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kolhatkar, A.G.; Dannongoda, C.; Kourentzi, K.; Jamison, A.C.; Nekrashevich, I.; Kar, A.; Cacao, E.; Strych, U.; Rusakova, I.; Martirosyan, K.S.; Litvinov, D.; Lee, T.R.; Willson, R.C. Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7535-7550.

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