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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 6831-6841; doi:10.3390/ijms16046831

Sex-Specific Diurnal Immobility Induced by Forced Swim Test in Wild Type and Clock Gene Deficient Mice

Key Lab of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicholas Delihas
Received: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [738 KB, uploaded 25 March 2015]   |  


Objective: The link between alterations in circadian rhythms and depression are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are far less elucidated. We investigated the circadian characteristics of immobility behavior in wild type (WT) mice and mice with mutations in core Clock genes. Methods: All mice were tested with forced swim test (FST) at 4 h intervals. Results: These experiments revealed significant diurnal rhythms associated with immobility behavior in both male and female WT mice with sex-different circadian properties. In addition, male mice showed significantly less immobility during the night phase in comparison to female mice. Female Per1Brdm1 mice also showed significant rhythmicity. However, the timing of rhythmicity was very different from that observed in female wild type mice. Male Per1Brdm1 mice showed a pattern of rhythmicity similar to that of wild type mice. Furthermore, female Per1Brdm1 mice showed higher duration of immobility in comparison to male Per1Brdm1 mice in both daytime and early night phases. Neither Per2Brdm1 nor ClockΔ19 mice showed significant rhythmicity, but both female Per2Brdm1 and ClockΔ19 mice had lower levels of immobility, compared to males. Conclusions: This study highlights the differences in the circadian characteristics of immobility induced by FST in WT, ClockΔ19, Per1, and Per2 deficient mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian; clock gene; mutant; sex-difference; immobility; forced swim circadian; clock gene; mutant; sex-difference; immobility; forced swim

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, N.; Xu, Y.; Chen, X.; Duan, Q.; Zhao, M. Sex-Specific Diurnal Immobility Induced by Forced Swim Test in Wild Type and Clock Gene Deficient Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 6831-6841.

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