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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3095-3115; doi:10.3390/ijms16023095

Neuron Membrane Trafficking and Protein Kinases Involved in Autism and ADHD

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women's University, Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 19 January 2015 / Published: 30 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

A brain-enriched multi-domain scaffolding protein, neurobeachin has been identified as a candidate gene for autism patients. Mutations in the synaptic adhesion protein cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) are also associated with autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder of uncertain molecular origin. Potential roles of neurobeachin and CADM1 have been suggested to a function of vesicle transport in endosomal trafficking. It seems that protein kinase B (AKT) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) have key roles in the neuron membrane trafficking involved in the pathogenesis of autism. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is documented to dopaminergic insufficiencies, which is attributed to synaptic dysfunction of dopamine transporter (DAT). AKT is also essential for the DAT cell-surface redistribution. In the present paper, we summarize and discuss the importance of several protein kinases that regulate the membrane trafficking involved in autism and ADHD, suggesting new targets for therapeutic intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; neurobeachin; CADM1; dopamine transporter; membrane trafficking autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; neurobeachin; CADM1; dopamine transporter; membrane trafficking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kitagishi, Y.; Minami, A.; Nakanishi, A.; Ogura, Y.; Matsuda, S. Neuron Membrane Trafficking and Protein Kinases Involved in Autism and ADHD. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 3095-3115.

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