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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29522-29541; doi:10.3390/ijms161226184

Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

1
Crop Environment Section, Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, Hualien 973, Taiwan
2
Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
3
Department of Biotechnology, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gopinadhan Paliyath
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanism of Action of Food Components in Disease Prevention)
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Abstract

Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM) reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Camellia tenuifloria ; monophenolase; diphenolase; iNOS; macrophages Camellia tenuifloria ; monophenolase; diphenolase; iNOS; macrophages
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiou, S.-Y.; Ha, C.-L.; Wu, P.-S.; Yeh, C.-L.; Su, Y.-S.; Li, M.-P.; Wu, M.-J. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 29522-29541.

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